The Effect of Economic and Cultural Factors on Entrepreneurial Activity: An Approach through Frontier Production Models

Francisco Javier Ortega Irizo, José Manuel Gavilán Ruiz, Inmaculada Jaén Figueroa

Resumen


El objetivo del trabajo es analizar cómo influyen las condiciones económicas y los valores culturales de un país en su actividad emprendedora, utilizando un panel de datos. Se aplica un enfoque novedoso, que se adapta al hecho de que los factores culturales son bastante estables en el tiempo, mientras que las condiciones económicas son cambiantes. Concretamente, se plantea un modelo de producción con frontera, en el que las condiciones económicas (cambiantes) determinan la frontera máxima para la tasa de emprendimiento de un país, mientras que los valores culturales predominantes (estables) explican el nivel de eficiencia-ineficiencia. En concreto, el arraigo es el valor cultural que presenta la relación más fuerte con el nivel de eficiencia.


Palabras clave


Valores culturales; Actividad emprendedora; Modelos de producción con frontera; Eficiencia.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)           Cómo citar un elemento

Referencias


Armington, C. and Acs, Z. J. (2002): “The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, 36, 33-45.

Aubry, M., Bonnet, J., and Renou-Maissant, P. (2015): “Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle: the “Schumpeter” Effect versus the “Refugee” Effect—a French Appraisal Based on Regional Data”, The Annals of Regional Science, 54(1), 23-55.

Audretsch, D. B. and Fritsch, M. (1999): “The Industry Component of Regional New Firm Formation Processes”, Review of Industrial Organization, 15, 239-252.

Battese, G.E. and Coelli, T.J. (1995): “a Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data”, Empirical Economics, 20, 325-332.

Bjornskov, C., and Foss, N. J. (2006): Economic freedom and entrepreneurial activity: Some cross-country evidence. DRUID Working Paper, 06-18.

Blackburn, R. and Kovalainen, A. (2009): “Researching Small Firms and Entrepreneurship: Past, Present and Future”, International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(2), 127-148.

Bogetoft, P. and Otto, L. (2011): Benchmarking with DEA, SFA, and R. Springer.

Bourdieu, P. (1991): Language and Symbolic Power, Cambridge, Polity Press.

Busenitz, L. W. and Lau, C. M. (1996): “A Cross-cultural Cognitive Model of new Venture Creation”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20(4), 25-39.

Busenitz, L.W., Gómez C. and Spencer, J.W. (2000): “Country Institutional Profiles: Unlocking Entrepreneurial Phenomena”, Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 994-1003.

Carree, M. A., van Stel, A., Thurik, A. R. and Wennekers, A. R. M. (2002): “Economic Development and Business Ownership: an Analysis Using Data of 23 OECD Countries in the Period 1976-1996”, Small Business Economics, 19(3), 271-290.

Chand, M. and Ghorbani, M. (2011): “National Culture, Networks and Ethnic Entrepreneurship: A Comparison of the Indian and Chinese Immigrants in the US”, International Business Review, 20(6), 593-606.

Coelli, T. and Henningsen, A. (2013): frontier: Stochastic Frontier Analysis. R package version 1.1-0. http://CRAN.R-Project.org/package=frontier.

Cullen, J. B., Johnson, J. L., and Parboteeah, K. P. (2014): “National Rates of Opportunity Entrepreneurship Activity: Insights From Institutional Anomie Theory”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(4), 775-806.

Davidsson, P. (1995): “Culture, Structure and Regional Levels of Entrepreneurship”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 7(1), 41- 62.

Davidsson, P. and Wiklund, J. (1997): “Values, Beliefs and Regional Variations in new Firm Formation Rates”, Journal of Economic Psychology, 18(2-3), 179-199.

De Clercq, D., Lim, D. S. K., and Oh, C. H. (2014): “Hierarchy and Conservatism in the Contributions of Resources to Entrepreneurial Activity”, Small Business Economics, 42(3), 507-522.

Dheer, R. J. S. (2017): “Cross-national Differences in Entrepreneurial Activity: Role of Culture and Institutional Factors”, Small Business Economics, 48(4), 813-842.

Etzioni, A. (1987): “Entrepreneurship, Adaptation and Legitimation: A Macro-behavioral Perspective”, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 8, 175-189.

Fernández-Serrano, J., Berbegal, V., Velasco, F., and Expósito, A. (2018): “Efficient Entrepreneurial Culture: a Cross-country Analysis of Developed Countries”, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14(1), 105-127.

Fishman, R. and Sarria-Allende, V. (2004): Regulation of Entry and the Distortion of Industrial Organization. Working Paper No. 10929, Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Frederking, L.C. (2004): “A Cross-national Study of Culture, Organization and Entrepreneurship in three Neighbourhoods”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 16(3), 197-215.

Fritsch, M. and Mueller, P. (2004): “Effects of New Business Formation on Regional Development over Time”, Regional Studies, 38, 961-975.

Fuentelsaz, L., González, C., Maícas, J. P., and Montero, J. (2015): “How Different Formal Institutions Affect Opportunity and Necessity Entrepreneurship”, BRQ Business Research Quarterly. 18(4), 246-258.

Greene, W. (2008): The Econometric Approach to Efficiency Analysis. In Fried, H.; Lovell K. and Schmidt (ed.): The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productive growth. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hadri, K. (1999): “Doubly Heteroscedastic Stochastic Frontier Cost Function Estimation”, Journal of Business & Economic Statistic, 17(3), 359-363.

Halicioglu, F., and Yolac, S. (2015): “Testing the Impact of Unemployment on Self-employment: Evidence from OECD Countries”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 10-17.

Hayton, J.C., George, G. and Zahra, S.A. (2002): “National Culture and Entrepreneurship: a Review of Behavioural Research”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4), 33-52.

Hofstede, G. (1980): Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values, Beverly Hills, Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G. (1991): Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, London, McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2003): Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations, Newbury Park, Sage Publications.

Inglehart, R. (1997): Modernization and Postmodernization, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Jabri, M. M. (2005): “Commentaries and Critical Articles: Text-context Relationships and Their Implications for Cross Cultural Management”, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 5, 349-360.

Jaén, I. and Liñán, F. (2013): “Work Values in a Changing Economic Environment: the Role of Entrepreneurial Capital”, International Journal of Manpower. 34(8), 939-960.

Koop, G. and Steel, M.F.J. (2003): “Bayesian Analysis of stochastic frontier models”, In Baltagi, B.H. (ed.): A companion to theoretical econometrics, 520-537, Oxford: Blackwell.

Koop, G., Steel, M.F.J. and Osiewalski, J. (1995): “Posterior Analysis of Stochastic Frontier Models Using Gibbs Sampling”, Computational Statistics, 10, 353-373.

Krueger, N. F. (2000): “The Cognitive Infrastructure of Opportunity Emergence”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24, 5-23.

Krueger, N. F. (2003): The Cognitive Psychology of Entrepreneurship, In: Acs, Z. J. & Audretsch, D. B. (eds.) Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction, London: Kluwer.

Krueger, N. F. and Carsrud, A. L. (1993): “Entrepreneurial Intentions: Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5, 315-330.

Kumbhakar, S.C. and Zhang, R. (2013): “Labor-use Efficiency and Employment Elasticity in Chinese Manufacturing”, Economia e Politica Industriale, 40, 5-24.

Kumbhakar, S.C., Lien, G. and Hardaker, J.B. (2014): “Technical Efficiency in Competing Panel Data Models: A study of Norwegian grain farming”, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 41, 321-337.

Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., and Naffziger, D. W. (1997): “An Examination of Owner’s Goals in Sustaining Entrepreneurship”, Journal of Small Business Management, 35(1), 24-34.

Laguna, M. (2013): “Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, and Entrepreneurship among the Unemployed”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(2), 253-262.

Lee, S. M. and Peterson, S. J. (2000): “Culture, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Global Competitiveness”, Journal of World Business, 35, 401-416.

Lee, S. Y., Florida, R. and Acs, Z. J. (2004): “Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of new Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, 38, 879-891.

Liñán, F. and Chen, Y. W. (2009): “Development and Cross-cultural Application of a Specific Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Intentions”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33, 593-617.

Liñán, F. and Fernandez-Serrano, J. (2014): “National Culture, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Different Patterns Across the European Union”, Small Business Economics, 42(4), 685-701.

Liñán, F., Fernández-Serrano, J., and Romero, I. (2013): “Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurship: The Mediating Effect of Culture”, Revista de Economía Mundial, 33, 21-47.

Liñán, F., Jaén, I. and Ortega, F. J. (2015): “Understanding the Role of Culture and Economic Conditions in Entrepreneurship”, In Peris, M.; Merigó, J.M. (ed.): Entrepreneurship, Regional Development and Culture (pp. 53-73), Springer International Publishing.

Liñán, F., Santos, F. J. and Fernández, J. (2011a): “The Influence of Perceptions on Potential Entrepreneurs”, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7, 373-390.

Liñán, F., Urbano, D. and Guerrero, M. (2011b): “Regional Variations in Entrepreneurial Cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23, 187-215.

Manolova, T., Brush, C. and Edelman, L. (2008): “What Do Women Entrepreneurs Want?”, Strategic Change, 17(3/4), 69–82.

Markus, H. R. and Kitayama, S. (1991): “Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion and Motivation”, Psychological Review, 98, 224- 253.

Mcgrath, R. G. and Macmillan, I. C. (1992): “More Like Each Other Than Anyone Else? A Cross-Cultural Study of Entrepreneurial Perceptions”, Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 419-429.

Minkov, M., and Hofstede, G. (2012): “Is National Culture a Meaningful Concept? Cultural Values Delineate Homogeneous National Clusters of In- Country Regions”, Cross-Cultural Research, 46(2), 133-159.

Minniti, M., Bygrave, W. D. and Autio, E. (2006): GEM, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2005 Executive Report, London, U.K. & Babson Park, MA, London Business School & Babson College.

Mitchell, R. K., Smith, B., Seawright, K. W. and Morse, E. A. (2000): “Cross-cultural Cognitions and the Venture Creation Decision”, Academy of Management Journal, 43, 974-993.

Mueller, S. L. and Thomas, A. S. (2001): “Culture and Entrepreneurial Potential: A nine Country Study of Locus of Control and Innovativeness”, Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 51-75.

Mueller, S. L., Thomas, A. S., and Jaeger, A. M. (2002): “National Entrepreneurial Potential: the Role of Culture, Economic Development and Political History”, In Hitt, M.A and Cheng, J.L. (Ed.), Managing Transnational Firms: Resources, Market Entry and Strategic Alliances (Vol. 14, pp. 221-257), JAI Press, Amsterdam.

Noorderhaven, N., Thurik, R., Wennekers, A. R. M., and van Stel, A. (2004): “The Role of Dissatisfaction and per capita Income in Explaining Self-employment Across 15 European countries”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(5), 447-466.

North, D.C. (1990): Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

North, D.C. (2005): Understanding the Process of Economic Change. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

O’Donnell, C.J. and Nguyen, K. (2013): “An Econometric Approach to Estimating Support Prices and Measures of Productivity Change in Public Hospitals”, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 40, 323-335.

Ortega, F.J. and Gavilan, J.M. (2013): “The Measurement of Production Efficiency in Scientific Journals through Stochastic Frontier Analysis Models: Application to quantitative economics journals”, Journal of Informetrics, 7, 959-965.

Ortega, F.J. and Gavilan, J.M. (2014): “A Comparison Between Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Models”, Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, 43(7), 1714-1725.

Parinduri, R.A. and Riyanto, Y.E. (2014): “Bank Ownership and Efficiency in the Aftermath of Financial Crises: Evidence from Indonesia”, Review of Development Economics, 18, 93-106.

Park, I. and Lee, Y.H. (2012): “Efficiency Comparison of International Golfers in the LPGA”, Journal of Sports Economics, 13, 378-392.

Parker, S. C. and Robson, M. (2004): “Explaining International Variations in Self-Employment: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries”, Southern Economic Journal, 71, 287-301.

Pinillos, M.J. and Reyes, L. (2011): “Relationship Between Individualist– Collectivist Culture and Entrepreneurial Activity: Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data”, Small Business Economics, 37(1), 23-37.

Reynolds, P. D., Storey, D. J. and Westhead, P. (1994): “Cross-National Comparison of the Variation in new Firm Rates”, Regional Studies, 28(4), 443-456.

Reynolds, P. D., Bygrave, W., Autio, E. and Hay, M. (2002): Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2002 summary report, Kansas City, Ewin Marion Kauffman Foundation.

Ros, M. (2002): “Los valores culturales y el desarrollo socioeconómico: una comparación entre teorías culturales”, Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 99, 9-33.

Sav, G.T. (2011). “Cost Efficiencies and Rankings of Flagship Universities”, American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 3, 596–603.

Schwab, K., and Sala-i-Martin, X. (2016): The Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Schwartz, S. H. (1990): “Individualism-Collectivism. Critique and proposed refinements”, Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 21, 139-157.

Schwartz, S. H. (1994): Beyond Individualism-Collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In: Kim, U., Triandis, H. C., Kagitçibasi, C., Choi, S. C. and Yoon, G. (eds.) Individualism and collectivism. Theory, method, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Schwartz, S. H. (1999): “Cultural Value Differences: some Implications for Work”, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23-48.

Schwartz, S.H. (2004): “Mapping and Interpreting Cultural Differences around the World”. In Vinken H.; Soeters J.; Ester, P. (ed.): Comparing Cultures, Dimensions of Culture in a Comparative Perspective. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Schwartz, S. H. (2006a): “Les valeurs de base de la personne: théorie, mesures et applications”, Revue Française De Sociologie, 47, 929-968.

Schwartz, S.H. (2006b): “A Theory of Cultural Value Orientations: Explication and Applications”, Comparative Sociology, 5 (2-3):137-182.

Schwartz, S.H. (2008): Cultural Value Orientations: Nature and Implications of National Differences, Publishing House of SU HSE, Moscow.

Schwartz, S.H. and Ros, M. (1995): “Values in the West: A Theoretical and Empirical Challenge to the Individualism-Collectivism Cultural Dimension”, World Psychology, 1, 99-122.

Shane, S. (1993): “Cultural Influences on National Rates of Innovation”, Journal of Business Venturing, 8, 59-73.

Shane, S., Kolvereid, l. and Westhead, P. (1991): “An Exploratory Examination of the Reasons Leading to New Firm Formation across Country and Gender”, Journal of Business Venturing, 6, 431-446.

Spencer, J.W. and Gomez, C. (2004): “The Relationship among National Institutional Structures, Economic Factors, and Domestic Entrepreneurial Activity: a Multicountry Study”, Journal of Business Research, 57, 1098- 1107.

Sternberg, R., and Wennekers, A. R. M. (2005): “Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data”, Small Business Economics, 24(3), 193-203.

Tang, l. and Koveos, P. E. (2008): “A Framework to Update Hofstede’s Cultural Value Indices: Economic dynamics and institutional stability”, Journal of International Business Studies, 39, 1045-1063.

Thornton, P. H., Ribeiro-Soriano, D. and Urbano, D. (2011): “Socio-cultural Factors and Entrepreneurial Activity”, International Small Business Journal, 29(2), 105-118.

Triandis, H. C. (1995): Individualism and Collectivism, Boulder, Co: Westview Press.

Urbano, D. and Alvarez, C. (2014): “Institutional Dimensions and Entrepreneurial Activity: An International Study”, Small Business Economics, 42(4), 703- 716.

Van Stel, A. and Storey, D. J. (2004): “The Link Between Firm Births and Job Creation: Is there a Upas Tree Effect?”, Regional Studies, 38, 893-909.

Van Stel, A., Wennekers, A. R. M., Turik, A. R., Reynolds, P. D., de Wit, G. (2003): Explaining nascent Entrepreneurship Across Countries. SCALES-paper (Vol. SCALES). Zoetermeer: EIM Business and Policy Research.

Verheul, I., Wennekers, A. R. M., Audretsch, D. B., and Thurik, A. R. (2002): An eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture. In D. B. Audretsch, A. R. Thurik, I. Verheul, and A. R. M. Wennekers (Eds.), Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European-US Comparison (pp. 11–81). Boston and Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Wang, G.W., Knox, K.J. and Lee, P.T.-W. (2013): “A Study of Relative Efficiency between Privatised and Publicly Operated US Ports”, Maritime Policy and Management, 40, 351–366.

Welter, F. (2011): “Contextualizing Entrepreneurship - Conceptual Challenges and Ways Forward”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 165- 184.

Wennekers, A. R. M., Uhlaner, L. M., and Thurik, A. R. (2002): “Entrepreneurship and its Conditions: A macro Perspective”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1(1), 25-64.

Wennekers, A. R. M., Thurik, R., van Stel, A., and Noorderhaven, N. (2007): “Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership Across 21 OECD countries, 1976–2004”, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 17(2), 133-160.

Wennekers, A.R.M., van Stel, A., Thurik, A.R. and Reynolds, P.D. (2005): “Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development”, Small Business Economics, 24 (3), 293-309.

Zahra, S.A. (2007): “Contextualizing Theory Building in Entrepreneurship Research”, Journal of Business Venturing, 22(3), 443-452.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33776/rem.v0i55.3830

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Copyright (c) 2020 Creative Commons (CC-BY)



e-ISSN:2340-4264   -   ISSN: 1576-0162

Entidad editoraUniversidad de Huelva. Servicio de Publicaciones.

Licencia de usoCreative Commons 4.0