Being Positive, Participative and Flexible: tools to human development and progress

Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Gina Tomé, Cátia Branquinho, Marta Reis, Lúcia Ramiro, Diego Gómez Baya, Tania Gaspar

Resumen


Durante las últimas dos décadas, se ha reconocido en gran medida en la literatura que los programas e intervenciones para jóvenes tendrían un impacto limitado si se enfocaran sólo en los riesgos y vulnerabilidades. Se ha encontrado que los enfoques basados en las fortalezas empoderan y son efectivos en varios contextos, y el interés en prevenir los problemas de la juventud y en promover el desarrollo saludable de los jóvenes ha llevado a los profesionales, los responsables políticos y los investigadores a desarrollar una amplia gama de enfoques extraídos de varios marcos teóricos. Los modelos contemporáneos de desarrollo juvenil y de prevención de problemas se pueden agrupar generalmente en tres tipos: prevención, resiliencia y desarrollo positivo juvenil. Cada enfoque brinda una contribución única al conocimiento sobre el afrontamiento, el desarrollo, la adaptación humana y la prosperidad, y todos comparten varias características claves y una visión común centrada en mejorar la vida de los jóvenes. Por otra parte, los modelos que se enfocan desde el Desarrollo Positivo Juvenil (DPJ) pueden implicar el estudio de los procesos evolutivos, una filosofía para abordar el desarrollo próspero de los jóvenes o bien el diseño de programas que promueven un desarrollo saludable y positivo en la juventud. Sin embargo, falta aún construir vínculos y sinergias entre estas tres perspectivas. Más recientemente, se han desarrollado los modelos integradores que tienen el beneficio potencial de la interconexión de riesgo, protección y activos, dentro de los sistemas ecológicos que afectan el desarrollo humano, y destacan el papel y el poder de los ecosistemas en la posibilidad de cambio, aumentando así la salud y el bienestar, el propósito vital, la autorrealización y la prosperidad. Además, en un período de cambios rápidos, ser feliz y no sentirse “irrelevante” tiene que ver con ser capaz de afrontar la diversidad y el cambio, mantener y desarrollar la curiosidad, la apertura a los cambios y la flexibilidad psicológica, considerando así el cambio y la diversidad como oportunidades. El propósito del presente trabajo es ofrecer un revisión de los marcos teóricos y de investigación que fundamentan este desarrollo histórico conceptual.

Palabras clave


Prevención; Promoción; Desarrollo positivo; Resiliencia; Autorregulación; Prosperidad; Flexibilidad psicológica; Modelos integradores

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33776/erebea.v10i0.4954 ';



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